Radiocarbon dating and the shroud of turin

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In the mid-20th century, developments made it possible for amateurs to take pictures in natural color as well as in black-and-white.

The commercial introduction of computer-based electronic digital cameras in the 1990s soon revolutionized photography.

The earliest known written record of the camera obscura is to be found in Chinese writings called Mozi, dated to the 4th century BCE.

Until the 16th century the camera obscura was mainly used to study optics and astronomy, especially to safely watch solar eclipses without damaging the eyes.

The notion that light can affect various substances - for instance the suntanning of skin or fading of textile - must have been around since very early times.

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This principle may have been known and used in prehistoric times.

The impressions persisted until they were erased by shaking the bottle or until overall exposure to light obliterated them.

Schulze named the substance "Scotophorus", when he published his findings in 1719.

Subsequent innovations made photography easier and more versatile.

New materials reduced the required camera exposure time from minutes to seconds, and eventually to a small fraction of a second; new photographic media were more economical, sensitive or convenient, including roll films for casual use by amateurs.

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