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Much of the material in this chapter has not appeared before in book form. The important lesson here is that Egyptologists have had such confidence in the biblical dates for the division of the kingdom and Rehoboam’s reign that they use these dates to set the anchor-point for determining the reign of all pharaohs of the 21st and 22nd Dynasties.As already mentioned, the Tyrian data found in Menander/Josephus have been used by several scholars to date the beginning of Temple construction, and hence the spring of Solomon’s fourth year (1 Kings 6:1), to 967 B. This date that can also be calculated from the biblical texts, which in turn are tied to Assyrian and astronomical data. Having established the dates of Solomon and the division of the kingdom upon his death, Chapter 3 then uses 1 Kings 6:1 to date the Exodus to Nisan 14, 1446 B. Recognizing that the date of the Exodus is a controversial issue, a full treatment is given for the various arguments in favor of this date versus a date in the 13th century that is advocated by some evangelicals.Applying the same corrections that Egyptologists say are necessary for 15th-century radiocarbon dates in Egypt’s Delta region would make the adjusted radiocarbon dates of Jericho City IV agree with the biblical date. While I was writing this review (late June, 2012), I learned of a new Web page established by the principal physicist associated with Dr.This controversy over radiocarbon dating in the second millennium B. Bietak that again asserted that radiocarbon dates for grain samples and other short-lived material from 15th-century Egypt are almost two centuries too high.As an example, the writings of Josephus are an important resource for the historian, but his chronology of the kingdom period is next to worthless and so is not brought up for discussion. Steinmann’s goal is to evaluate the multitude of sources, select those that can be judged as historically reliable, and then present that information in a logical form that shows the history and chronological progression of the events described. But beyond that is another question: what does the text mean?But one part of Josephus that is of great value for this period is his citation of Phoenician records for the chronology of the kings of Tyre, records that Josephus said existed in the archives of Tyre when he wrote. Cross Jr., and William Barnes who have established the authenticity of this Tyrian material, based in part on an archaeological finding that was published in 1951. At the end of each section, the chronology for the period is summarized into tables that the reader will find useful for future reference. It is clear that the text says that Jotham of Judah reigned sixteen years, but does this mean 16 years from the start of his sole reign or 16 years from the time he took over the responsibilities of kingship when his father, King Uzziah, was struck with leprosy?The reader of is introduced to the scholarship of researchers such as J. These scholars were by no means committed to establishing the Bible’s accuracy in historical matters, but their studies nevertheless verify, independently of the biblical account, that construction began on Solomon’s Temple in the spring of 967 B. It is therefore appropriate that after a short first chapter devoted to the importance of time and chronology throughout the Bible, Chapter 2 discusses the meaning of time expressions in ancient Israel and neighboring cultures, including the various ways a king’s reign could be measured.After this background, Chapter 3 establishes two benchmarks for Old Testament chronology: the dates for Solomon’s reign and the time of the Exodus.

C., which is about 150 to 170 years before the destruction described in the book of Joshua (1406 B. Bryant Wood has challenged Kenyon’s dates based on the pottery found in City IV.C., since evidence from the Bible and Israel’s history shows that counting for the Jubilee and Sabbatical cycles started in that year, and the only credible charter for their observance is found in Leviticus 25-27.Chapter 4 is devoted to the chronology of the patriarchs.This is not an unreasonable figure, since it is exceeded in some countries at the present day.In short, the discussion in Chapter 4, although advocating the Long Sojourn, is not likely to change the opinion of many who hold to the Short Sojourn.

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